# Quantum Security

The quantum mechanical principles of superposition, entanglement, particle-wave duality and Heisenberg's uncertainty have been applied to develop a series of technologies that could resist the brute force of quantum computers and provide a system or network with unconditional security, deemed the highest possible security providable.

A synopsis of the broad categories of quantum security technologies is given below.

#### Quantum Random Number Generator** (QRNG)**

**(QRNG)**

Classical random number generators like PRNG and TRNG use predictable inputs and algorithms to process them which give deterministic numbers. These inputs have higher probability of repeating which creates predictability. This making the entire system weak.

Quantum random numbers are created based on atomic and sub-atomic phenomena that generate low-level, statistically random "noise" signals, such as thermal noise, the photoelectric effect, involving a beam splitter, and other quantum phenomena. These stochastic processes are, in theory, completely unpredictable for as long as an equation governing such phenomena is unknown or uncomputable.

**Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)**

Quantum key distribution is a secure communication method which implements a cryptographic protocol involving components of quantum mechanics. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages.

A unique property of quantum key distribution is the ability of the two communicating users to detect the presence of any third party trying to gain knowledge of the key. This results from a fundamental aspect of quantum mechanics: the process of measuring a quantum system in general disturbs the system. A third party trying to eavesdrop on the key must in some way measure it, thus introducing detectable anomalies. By using quantum superpositions or quantum entanglement and transmitting information in quantum states, a communication system can be implemented that detects eavesdropping.

#### Post-quantum cryptography (PQC)

Post-quantum cryptography refers to cryptographic algorithms, usually public-key algorithms, that are thought to be secure against a cryptanalytic attack by a quantum computer. PQC generally require larger key sizes than commonly used "pre-quantum" public key algorithms. There are often tradeoffs to be made in key size, computational efficiency and ciphertext or signature size.

### Ozone chain and Quantum security

Ozone chain uses quantum random numbers (QRN) and post-quantum cryptography (PQC) to make the blockchain quantum secure and quantum resistant.

Quantum key distribution (QKD), in its current implementations has geographical limitations that constrain its usage within a few hundred kilometres. This is a huge drawback for a blockchain, where nodes need to be distributed globally and inter-node communications must span thousands of kilometres.

Thus, an architectural decision has been made to use PQC for inter-node communications, while being quantum-resistant at the same time.

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