# Introduction

The progress in developing quantum computers has threatened the commonly used symmetric and asymmetric key cryptographic systems, which is used by all the existing blockchains. Quantum computers are capable of breaking many forms of traditional cryptography because of their inherent quantum properties such as superposition and entanglement, coupled with quantum algorithms, which take advantage of those properties and accelerate the cryptanalytic computation[1].

This has motivated Ozone for the study and development of quantum security solutions like post-quantum cryptography and quantum random numbers applied to blockchain. Ozone chain is resistant against quantum as well as classical attacks and can be deployed in the existing network infrastructure.

Ozone plans to focus on improving the blockchain security in two key areas:

**I. Post Quantum Cryptography (PQC):**

Ozone chain's network layer involves the usage of quantum communication and quantum computation to perform various cryptographic tasks and secure the transmission of data. Ozone chain uses a variant of Post Quantum Cryptography called Lattice based cryptography. Lattice-based cryptography has been proven to be highly resistant to subexponential as well as quantum threats. Ozone nodes communicate with each other through a specially created bi-directional quantum tunnel that deploys lattice based cryptography to encrypt and decrypt data. This encrypted communication channel or the data intercepted therefrom is resistant to attacks even by a future quantum computer.

**II. Quantum Random Numbers (QRN):**

Current blockchain solutions use pseudo-random numbers (PRN) to perform cryptographic functions like hashing, encryption and digital signatures. These use mathematical algorithms to create numbers that appear random but are deterministic if all inputs and processes are known. Ozone's relies on the quantum state of matter for generation of random numbers which are non-deterministic[2]. The QRNs are used in Ozone chain's cryptographic protocols to generate seeds, initial random values, nonces (salts), blinding values and padding bytes.

Ozone chain's cryptographic layer and network layer are built using the above mentioned quantum security technologies. Thus, Ozone chain provides unprecedented security to the digital assets like coins, tokens and NFTs residing therein.

Last updated